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竹桥古村解说
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竹桥古村解说

2017-12-6 19:23| 发布者: admin| 查看: 746| 评论: 0
摘要: 竹桥古村解说词 Zhuqiao Cun An ancient village in eastern Jiangxi Province 竹桥古村始于元末明初,距今六、七百年。这是一个余姓的村落,是由福建邵武蓝田迁移而来。现有220户,800余人。2010年的时候,村桥古 ...


竹桥古村解说词

Zhuqiao Cun

An ancient village in eastern Jiangxi Province

 

竹桥古村始于元末明初,距今六、七百年。这是一个余姓的村落,是由福建邵武蓝田迁移而来。现有220户,800余人。2010年的时候,村桥古村被评为“中国历史文化名村”。

 

Dating from the late Yuan Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty, Zhuqiao Cun is with a history of 6,700 years. The original villagers of Zhuqiao Cun, Yu’s family, coming from Fujian province, traveled a great distance and then settled here. Until now, there are almost 200 households and about 800 people.

In 2010, Zhuqiao Cun was rated as the Chinese historical and Cultural Village.

 

我们地方上有一句话是这样说的:“临川才子金溪书”。而村桥古村就是“金溪书”的发源地。古村现存109幢明清时代的建筑,其中有祠堂5座,门楼4座,古井3口,雕版印刷遗址2处。等下我会一一向大家介绍。

 

Like the Shakespeare in England and the ? in Spanish, the talents of Linchuan and the books of Jinxi are both very famous in China. And the latter begins right here. Besides, there are 109 architectural remainsincluding five ancestral temples, four gate towers, three old wells, and two wood-block printing sites. Well, next, let me give you a detailed introduction about the above things.

 

现在,我们走的这条青石板路。在古时候,是通往东乡的驿道。驿道呢?就相当于现在的国道。石板中间的凹槽,是由当时鸡公车走压产生的,从另一个侧面也反应出当时交通的繁华,算是历史遗留下来的痕迹吧!

 

Look at the road we are walking on. It’s a black slab stone road. In ancient China, this is a post road, leading to Dongxiang County. The post road is almost like our modern State Road. Someone of you may have noticed the grooves in the middle of the stone. Well, these grooves are the traces left by Jigong Che, a single-wheeled cart, which is used to deliver goods and materials. (A mini truck in old days, huh?) And thank for these marks, we can gain a hint of the bustling scenes of this traditional village at that time.

 

这是下门楼“光禄世第门”,是纪念始祖克忠公之父余褐的。他曾为唐代礼部尚书、授正二品迎亲光禄大夫衔。

 

This gate tower in front of you is called Guanglu Shidi Men, Men is door in Chinese, and Guanglu Shidi is the door’s name. The builders build it to memorialize the predecessor, Yuhe, and his achievements.

 

康乾道品字三井。左边那口是修于康熙年间,这口修于乾隆年间,不远处还有一口修于道光年间。我们先来说下这口乾隆年间的水井吧。首先,我们可以看到水井外沿由十根石栏杆围成的多边形,呈现出外圆内方的形状,酷似古代的铜钱,也体现出中国古人“天圆地方”的世界观。这里十根石柱代表着十全十美。而在古时候,“泉”和“钱”同源字,体现古村人对财富的渴望。而三口水井呈品字排列,是在告诫后人:君子爱财取之有道,做人要讲品德,做生意要讲诚信。

 

Well, here is the site of the three old wells in Qing Dynasty. The left one is dug during the reign of Emperor Kangxi, and this one is dug in the Emperor Qianlong years. Not far from here, there is another old well dug during Daoguang period. People here also call them Kangqiandao Pinzi San Jing. San Jing is three wells in Chinese.

Look at this well. Dug in Qianlong years, it is surrounded by ten stone balustrades. A square hole inside a circle, the shape is similar to the Chinese ancient cooper, and also stands for the hemispherical dome cosmology in ancient Chinese culture. Ten stone balustrades means perfect.

The ancients in China had a special attitude towards wealth. They viewed water as money. This three old wells and the thoughtful arrangement imply that people has to make money in the right way, maintaining a reputation for honesty.

 

这口是修于康熙年间的水井。据说,太平军曾经过此地的时候,在村里烧杀掳掠。大家可以看到这些石栏上面是波浪形的。这就是当年太平军杀人磨刀所致,而被杀害的村民的鲜血不仅浸透了这些石栏,还把井水也染红了。从此,村里人就没有使用这口井了。

 

Taiping Army is a very important part in the history of Qing Dynasty. It consists of peasant uprisings. It was said that these insurgents killed, burned and looted here when they passed through the village. And the wavy lines on the stone balustrades are the evidence that the uprisings sharpened their knives for killing. Blood soaked the stone balustrades, the well, flowing quietly around. After that, the well has never been used.

 

这就是总门楼。大家有没发现门楼是不是有点特别呢?不是对着这条道路,而是朝向这口井的。这就要追溯到建村那会,当时有位风水大师廖禹先生,在仔细观察了这里地形后,在这里放了一把太师椅来定门楼方位,而太师椅就正对这前方崇岭方向,恰巧此时路过一头黄牛,碰歪了太师椅!廖禹先生很遗憾的说:“天意不可违啊!”本来朝这个方向的话,古村将会变成千户之村,而现在只能发展成千丁之村。

 

This one is the second gate tower we see. Have you found something special or different, comparing with the one we have just met? Well, stand in front of the door, and you may see the difference. The front of the gate tower is a well, not a road! And, you may never relate this thing to a bull.

A celebrated master, skilled at Fengshui, was said to come here and helped people to build the village years ago. According to the related theory, he put an armchair to confirm an ideal direction of this gate tower, which has a great importance on the development of the village. However, a bull happened to run into the scene and knocked this armchair. A great pity it is! The master had no way. So, the gate tower and the village had to be what we saw today.

 

门楼始建于明代初年,古村之所以能较好的保存109幢明清建筑,这总门楼是功不可没的。在战争年间,门楼两旁设有兵哨,一般人是不能随便进入古村的。然而,因历史变迁、战争的破坏,门楼两次重修,那么大家可以看到这有块捐资碑,就是重修们楼时村里人捐资的记录。这还有块禁碑,就是严禁麻风病人进入村子。

 

This gate tower was first built in the early Ming dynasty, and rebuilt twice until now. During the war, safeguard was settled on either side of the gate tower. The average is not admitted to go in.

The tablet here is inscribed the donation, recording the donators and some other detailed information. Another tablet, look this one, is a warning to the lepers that they are not allowed to be in the village.

 

七星伴月塘:这有口水塘,它全部由石块砌成的。全村总共有八方这样的水塘,在我们村有个很好听的名字叫做七星伴月塘。从风水角度上看,其中七口水塘呈北斗七星相伴着半圆形的月塘排列。而这七星伴月塘也构成了古村先进完善的排水系统。我们看到古村的地势是由低到高的。比如,雨水或者生活用水从天井顺着沟渠流到池塘,再由最上面池塘一口一口地流到最下面的池塘,然后排到村外灌溉农田。这样就能充分利用了水资源。

 

This is a pool, constructed by stone entirely. Same as this one, another seven pools are found in the village. People here give them a beautiful name, Qixingbanyue Tang. Tang is pool in Chinese. The seven pools sit on the ground just like the Big Dipper in the sky. They all around one semicircle pool, named Yue Tang. Yue is moon in Chinese.

The Qixingbanyue Tang is not only a beautiful scene in the village, but also a developed drainage system. The terrain of the village is form high to low.

Water from rain or residential use flows along the canals and to the pools, from the high one to the low one, finally, goes to the farmland outside the village. In this way, water is used to the full.

 

芝兰启秀:“芝兰”和“玉树”,古时都是比喻高尚人子弟,后亦用作对优秀子弟的美称,这个匾额充分体现了主人对族群后人寄予厚望,希望族群的优秀子弟能振兴家族,光宗耀祖。这里刻有“渐升”“履泰”,履泰是登泰山,也可以说是走得稳当。渐升,这里“升”的一撇在左边,而不是在上面,就是说渐渐地往上升,不要挡住上升的空间。在此,我也祝各位领导步步高升。

 

Zhilan and Yushu, are metaphors to men of noble spirit and also a word to describe the excellent. From this plaque, Zhilan Qixiu, we can see the owner has a great expectation on the younger generation, hoping them can bring the family prosperity.

Look! You can see two words carved here, Jiansheng and Lvtai. Lvtai, is climbing Mount Tai in Chinese. Jiansheng has a meaning of rising steadily. Both of them convey a positive moral in Chinese culture. Hope they can bless you in everything you do, our honored guests.

 

文隆公祠:这是村中最早的祠堂,建于明代初年。是纪念开村始祖余文隆。余文隆是古村始祖余克忠第十三代后人。余文隆曾是陈友谅手下,在鄱阳湖大战期间战死。由于祠堂建于明朝,所以建材大多为红色的石头,樟树以及朱树。每逢正月初二,全村人都要来此祭祖,并未新生儿上族谱。

 

Wenlonggong Ci, the earliest ancestral temple in the village. In the early Ming Dynasty, it was built to memorialize the predecessor, Yu Wenlong, who was the thirteenth decedent of the ancestor, Yu Kezhong. Yu Wenlong, once worked under Chen Youliang, and died in the battle of Poyang Hu.Chen Youliang is known for establishing a short-lived Dynasty at the end of Yuan Dynasty.

The construction material includes red stone, cinnamomum camphora and Zhu tree.

People here held important events inside this building. Every year, on the day after the New Year’s Day, the whole villagers come to this temple, worshiping the ancestors, and register the newborn in the family tree.

 

文林第:这里就是国军军长周浑元岳父的家。周浑元,在长征途中,多次对红军追剿,是蒋介石得力干将。他也是1938年去世。死后蒋介石亲自为他写挽联。

 

Wenlin Di is the residence of Zhou hunyuan' s father-in-law. Zhou Hunyuan is a military commander, the most valuable general of Jiang Jieshi.

He had tracked down the Red Army in many battles. When he died in 1938, Jiang Jieshi himself wrote an elegiac couplet to him.

 

    这就是中门楼。地面上有青石铺成的一个“本”字,这门后面还写着一个人字,这是古村用来教育后人:做人要本分,以人为本;其次是书本的意思,古村以雕版印刷为主;再次,本着,根也。无论做人还是做官,都不能忘了根本,可以说是增强了古村人的凝聚力和亲和力。两旁还设有旗杆石和系马桩,虽然经历了数百年风雨的侵蚀,但今天在旗杆石上可以看到在光绪年间村里人考取功名留下的记录。

 

This is another gate tower. You can see a Chinese character, Ben, paved by blue stones on the ground. Ben, has many meanings in Chinese, such as the origin of a thing, the man itself, or the number of books. Behind this gate tower, there is another Chinese character, Ren, which is people in Chinese. This gate tower conveys several message as following. First, a man has to take his own responsibility. Second, a symbol of the outstanding technology, Block Painting. last, people here should keep in mind that a man should never forget who he is, no matter what achievements he makes. it can be said that this gate tower makes a great contribution to the unity of the villagers.

A flag stone and a stake, used to tie the horse, sit beside the gate tower. The flag stone records  the scholars'  fame and the village's glory. Though hundreds of years passed, they still in a good state.

 

古村有几处罕见的文化现象,比如门旁的惜字炉就是其中之一。古时,村里人看到地上有印有字的纸张,会捡起来放到炉内烧掉,而不是用脚去践踏。这体现当时古村人对文化的尊重。

 

By the gate, Xizi Lu is one of the rare cultural phenomenon. In ancient times, people will burn the printed paper, when he finds it on the ground, other than crush it under the feet. I believe that you can see the villager's  respect for culture from this thing.

 

我们前方是明代房屋,大家有没发现什么特点呢?对,其他房屋都能看到大门,而这幢房屋其实是背对着我们,它外形酷似明朝官帽,寓意官倒,官到了!也好像在说:欢迎各位领导的到来。

 

,but this one is actually back to us. Its appearance is just like the official headgear in the Ming Dynasty. Because of this, the house has a fame for blessing the visitors get promoted in career. Hope it will bring you luck, my honored guests.

 

大夫第建筑群:由钟祥公始建于道光四年。主人在湖南经商,富甲一方,并获诰封三代朝议大夫(四品封典),所以该建筑称为大夫第,是四栋联体建筑,不但楼阁完善,而且巧妙设计有专供晒养银钱的晒银楼。现在的主人收藏了一些古董家具,请领导们参观。

This group of buildings can date from the year 1824. The householder is a wealthy businessman, who was awarded as Dafu, an official position, which is a great honor for businessman in ancient times, though without real power. Due to their owner's identity, the buildings are named Dafu Di. Di is estate in Chinese.

Four buildings connect and form the whole architecture. These pavilions are well preserved. Besides, a special one of them, named Shaiyin Lou, is designed to dry the silver coins. Inside the buildings, the owner have collected some antique furniture. let's have a look.

 

现在我们沿着这条小道往前走,大家有没发现这里门楼与前面那个门楼是斜对的,加上这条蜿蜒小道,在古村这也有个说法,用这种不寻常的结构来对付歪门邪道的人。这里水塘就是刚说到的七星伴月塘其中的两口,在这里还具有防火防盗的作用呢。防火就不用解释了吧!防盗呢?古村若是进了盗匪,他们在被村民追赶的情况下,会慌不择路,就掉进这水塘里面了。

 

Now along the winding paths we are walking, there is another gate tower, which is not aligned exactly with the one just passed by. It is said that this special design can be used to block perverts.

Well, these two pools are among the Qixing Banyue Tang introduced. The pool has a very important function for preventing the house from fire and thieves. (As you see, almost all ancient Chinese buildings are made of wood.) I guess you may be confusing now. Why? The pool and the thieves? In fact, when the thieves get into the village, villagers find them and will chase and hit. The thieves are fluttered and have a strong possibility jumping to the pool.

 

这是上门楼、谏草传芳。谏是向皇帝进谏,草是黎民百姓。这里是为了纪念在道光年间,古村人余昌言担任言官,给皇帝出谋划策后被采纳了。同时,余昌言也是陆九渊的好朋友。

 

Jian Cao Chuan Fang, Jian, means to give advice to the emperor in Chinese. Cao is common wealth in Chinese. This gate tower is built to memorialize Yu Changyan, whose advise are adopted by the emperor Daoguang. Yu Changyan and Lu j Jiuyuan are good friends.

 

对面是芋头 胖子土坯房:该建筑是本村外号芋头胖子的大财主建造的一栋土坯房。因为主人属鼠,且为地鼠,地鼠怕火,砖乃火制,火气重也,故不用砖墙。至于屋顶坡面整体东高西低?有说这里是一条线风带,为了避风;有说是主人爱财,控制肥水外流;也有说是适应堪舆之说而避免东低西高。事实如何还有待考究。

 

The opposite is the rammed earth construction, Yutou Pangzi. (Pangzi is a Chinese word to describe someone fat.) Yutou Pangzi, is a well-known local rich man. This clay house belongs to him. A rich man living in places like this. You may wonder him another Sherlock in Shakespeare's world. The truth is that the rammed earth construction is the result of Chinese culture. The brick is made by fire. The householder was born in the year of the rat. People think rat afraid of fire. Regarding to this view, the house of this rich man shouldn't be made of brick.

There are some reasons for the roof construction, but none of them are confirmed.

 

这里合房严禁碑,属于公共场所。墙上有块禁碑,上面写着:门楼。观瞻所系,不得摆放农具等。而在当时乡规族约是非常严厉而权威的。

 

Here is a public space, Hefang Yanjin Bei. A warning tablet on the wall with words, Men Lou. Men Lou is gate tower. No farm implements are permitted to be put here, which shows the power of the rules.

 

村中房屋建的比较密集,巷子是比较窄的。我们在村里看到有墙角的话,一般都要这样抹掉一下。这是为防止老人小孩磕伤碰伤,同时也告诫后人做人要低调不要锋芒毕露。

 

The houses here in the village are very dense and the roads are narrow. Wen we see the corner like this, it 's proper for us to wipe the corner. This action can prevent the old and the youth from being injured, and also, tell the descendant not to make a showy display of their abilities.

 

这叫墙裙。是明代建筑的一个特点。是用大块的青石垒砌,再在此基础上砌青砖。有防盗贼破墙入室的作用。同时,墙裙青石层越多,就更显示出这家财力雄厚。

 

This dado, built by bluestones, and blue brick, is a feature in Ming's architecture. As a protection to the architecture, it makes a contribution against thieves. Except this, the dado is a symbol to the identity. Generally speaking, richer one is, more dado will be used.

 

巷子贴墙处都有深而窄的明沟,夜里若是不小心,跌落下去会摔得很惨,所以,它同样具有防盗的功能。建筑对防盗的重视,披露了男人们外出经商的历史信息。

 

Deep, narrow and open ditches can be found in many lanes. If fell down carelessly, it would be very hurt. Because of this, the ditches has another function that it can protect the house against thieves.

The design, attaching importance to discouraging thieves, implies that men are out for business.

 

余地山故居:我们先来说下竹桥古村的三位军长。一个是红军第十军军长周建屏,一个是国军军长周浑元,还有一个就是这个国民先遣军军长余地山。他们在竹桥都留有遗址,待会儿,会一一给大家介绍的。

这家主人余地山,国民先遣军军长,和李烈钧是同学,由于北伐的失败,余地山解甲归田,抚琴自娱,而后成为了古琴名家。

八家弄:这里八家弄与前面十家弄的主人,一个是叔叔辈,一个是侄子辈。而这“弄”念long,上海话,弄堂。而在我们这边都是喊街和巷的。也许是这家族在上海做生意而带回来的一些文化吧!这八家弄是同时动工,同时起粱,同时落成,八家都是由耳门相通,雨天往来不湿脚。老祖宗为了便于子孙后代之间往来沟通,增加亲和力而匠心设计的,希望世代心心相通,亲和团结,兴旺发达。

十家弄:这家房屋原先是余忠祥所有,他在浒湾开设的余大文堂,在当时很有名气。我们看到这大门,最上面有个宝瓶,起镇宅作用。中间牌匾旁各雕有两个小人,面朝外的是武官,面朝内的是文官,寓意文主内武主外。还可以看到两边有精美的砖雕,这些砖雕都是经高温烧制,有防腐蚀的作用。再往下看,大门门楣处雕有倒立的鹿,倒立的蝙蝠还有一根桃枝,寓意福到、禄到来添寿。旁边窗户上雕有三只羊,就三阳开泰之意。

拜石:这原先是一个秀才的家。他十分崇拜书法大师米芾。而米芾还有一个嗜好——爱石成痴。只要见到喜爱的石头,便会下跪与之结拜,所以在门牌上刻上“拜石”二字。而这“石”多一点,从书法角度上,是为了平衡字体结构,石       点,也寓意着对财富的崇拜。那么    点石    成什么呢?

这墙叫照壁。大门上方有个无字牌匾,这就有个小故事,原先这家主人考取功名,在去广西上任的途中被匪徒给杀了。因为没有上任,所以这里就不能刻文林第了。这故事恰似前几年热播电影《让子弹飞》的现实版了。后来指出大门正对巷口和别人屋角,为了挡冲挡煞气,才建了这照壁。

屋内有精致的木雕,受文革影响,只有一两处保存当时镏金的木雕了。这边还有一个“福”字,从中我们可以读取出:①左龙右凤(龙凤呈祥)。②有蝙蝠、鹿、寿桃、喜鹊,连在一起就是福禄寿喜了。③喜鹊头叼着梅花,喜上眉梢。④中间还有向日葵、一些石榴、这是一个才,还有个田字,寓意为多子多孙多才多田多福。

苍岚山房:这里天井特别大,采光性好,两边原是学堂,我们天花板上有定滑轮,原本挂着一卷凉席,可以遮阳遮雨,若是家中来客人,放下来还能隔离厅堂和学堂呢。这有块拜孔子石,是弟子叩拜孔子和老师的石头。这还有晒书楼,一楼是印刷书本,而刚印刷好的书本就要放到二楼阴干。这石柱有防潮作用。这里还有个花园,学生下课后玩耍的地方,曾经有些领导来此考察时,风趣地说:这不就是鲁迅笔下的《从百草园到三味书屋》吗?

 

腰门:腰门的设计具有人性化和人情味,开着大门,关了腰门,屋内采光不受影响,既能阻拦家里的幼孩随意爬出,鸡鸭猫狗等牲畜又不得进入,实用功能强。

 

The design of Yao Men is very considerate for its function. It can keep the children safe and the livestock out of the house. meanwhile, the light of the house wouldn't be shaded from the light.

 

步云公祠:这公祠是村中保存最好的一个祠堂,是为了纪念红军军长周建屏。周建屏和方志敏都是红十军创始人之一。周建屏在这散家产给村民,还在这建立了第一个农村革命委员会。1933年,红军军长周建屏和国军军长周浑元在金溪对阵。1938年在河北因旧伤复发去世。死后,河北小觉镇改名建屏镇。

养正山房:村中第二处雕版印刷遗址,由于目前主人不在家,常年的失修,所以就没有开放给大家。

 

Yangzheng Shanfang.

This is another site of Block Printing in the village. The owner is out for years and the building falls into disrepair.

 

镇川公祠:植桂、培兰①希望在此培育出人才,子孙都能显贵发达。②女孩在左边学习,男孩在右边学习。古时虽说女子无才便是德,而在古村教育孩子是不分男女的。③正因为竹桥如此良好的教学气氛,抗日时期,金溪一中选择在此作为临时学校。

 

Zhenchuangong Ci

Zhigui and Peilan express the hope for cultivating talents. The girls sit on the left and the boys on the right. In the village, the girls have the equal right to be educated.

This good tradition makes it the appropriate settlement for Jinxi No.1 Middle School to a temporary use during the Anti-Japanese war.

 

牌匾对云①对我生青云,青云直上。②堂号、年号、落款和字章。(十分齐全)③字体,大部分都是粗体,唯独这“寸”部分是细很多。左边类似书的繁体,那么可以说一寸光阴一寸金。④曹秀先是南昌新建人,《四库全书》的副总裁,我们熟知的纪晓岚是当时《四库全书》的主编。从分工上,他俩是上下属关系。可曹秀先当时未曾来过古村,这牌匾是建祠堂的十家弄兄弟等人向曹秀先求取的。商人在当时地位不高,能像中央高管求取笔墨,那这是否因为当时修《四库全书》需要大量雕版印刷,才与古村余忠祥等人有机会会面?

 

仲和公祠:①“入孝”“出弟”弟这里念ti同悌。是出自孔子《论语》。意思就是在家要孝顺父母,在外要善待兄弟朋友。②这是古村最气派的一栋祠堂,门上有十根门簪,代表着来头十足之意。中间门一般不开,只有村中长者来了,才会打开,今天来了这么多的贵宾,大门是早早就打开了。

 

Zhonghegong Ci

Ruxiao and Chuti are from the Analects of Confucius. they have a meaning of respecting parents and being kind to the friends. Zhonghegong Ci is the most extraordinary ancestral temple in the village with ten decorative cylinders, which stands for a omnipotent background. The door in the middle open merely in special situation, such as the elderly comes.

Well, it is open now. Welcome our honored guests

 

到这里,我的讲解就要结束了。“邂逅五湖乘兴往,相邀锦绣谷中春”,这是王安石对金溪的溢美之词,今天我再借用这句话,祝愿各位领导身体健康,万事如意!

 

OK, that’s all. “邂逅五湖乘兴往,相邀锦绣谷中春”, Wang anshi  was effusive in his praise for Jinxi. Today I want to use this verse to convey my best wishes. Hope distinguished leaderships good health and all the best!

Wish you good health and all the best!

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